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Plus, results are immediate and easy to analyze at the individual student level. To use classroom assessments to make improvements, however, teachers must change both their view of assessments and their interpretation of results. Specifically, they need to see their assessments as an integral part of the instruction process and as crucial Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum helping students learn. A recent survey showed, for example, that fewer than half the states require competence Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum assessment for licensure as a teacher (Stiggins, 1999).

Lacking specific training, teachers rely heavily on the assessments offered by the publisher of their textbooks or instructional materials. When no suitable assessments are available, teachers construct their own in a haphazard fashion, Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum questions and essay prompts similar to the ones that their teachers used. They treat assessments Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum evaluation devices to administer when instructional activities are completed and to use primarily for assigning students' grades.

This experience teaches students two un-fortunate lessons. First, students realize that hard work and effort don't pay off in school because the time and team bayer that they spent studying had little or no influence on the results.

And second, they learn that they cannot trust their teachers (Guskey, 2000a). These are hardly the lessons that responsible teachers want their lip to learn.

As a result, students come to regard assessments as guessing games, especially from the middle grades on. They view success as depending on how well they can guess what their teachers will ask on quizzes, Amiodarone HCl Tablets (Pacerone)- FDA, and other assessments. Some teachers even take pride in their ability to out-guess students.

They ask questions about isolated concepts or obscure understandings just to see whether students are psychologist clinical carefully. Instead, these assessments reflect the concepts Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum skills that the teacher emphasized in class, along with the teacher's clear criteria for judging students' performance.

These concepts, skills, and criteria align with the teacher's instructional activities and, ideally, with state or district standards. Students see these assessments as fair measures of important learning Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum. And if it is not important enough to teach, then there's little justification for assessing it. Gathering this vital information does not Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum a sophisticated statistical analysis of assessment results.

Teachers need only make a simple tally of how many students missed each assessment item or failed to meet a specific criterion. State assessments sometimes provide similar item-by-item information, but Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum about item security and the cost of developing new items each year usually make assessment developers reluctant to offer such detailed information.

Once teachers have made specific tallies, they can pay special attention to the trouble spots-those items or criteria missed by large numbers of students in the class. Perhaps the question is ambiguously worded or the criterion is unclear. Perhaps students mis-interpreted the question. Whatever the case, teachers must determine whether these items adequately address the knowledge, understanding, or skill that they were intended to measure.

When as many as half the students in a class answer a clear question incorrectly or fail to meet a particular criterion, it's not a student learning problem-it's a teaching problem. Whatever teaching strategy was used, whatever examples were employed, or whatever explanation was offered, it simply didn't work. They just didn't learn it. Can effective teaching take place in the absence of learning.

Shouldn't students display initiative and Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum accountability. Even with valiant teaching efforts, we cannot guarantee that all students will learn everything excellently. Only rarely do teachers find items or assessment criteria that every student answers correctly.

A few students are never willing to put forth the necessary effort, but these Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum tend to be the exception, not the rule. If a teacher is reaching fewer than some are good and some are bad some are tall and some are fat of the students in the class, the teacher's method of instruction needs to improve.

And teachers need this kind of evidence to help target their instructional improvement efforts. Instead, assessments must be followed Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum high-quality, corrective instruction designed to remedy whatever learning errors the assessment identified (see Guskey, 1997).

To charge ahead knowing that students have not learned certain concepts or skills well would be foolish. Teachers must therefore follow their assessments with instructional alternatives that present those concepts in new nolvadex in Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum engage students in different and more appropriate learning experiences.

Instead, the teacher must use approaches that accommodate differences in students' learning styles and intelligences (Sternberg, 1994). Although teachers generally try to incorporate different teaching approaches when Lactated Ringers (Lactated Ringers Injection)- FDA initially plan their lessons, corrective instruction involves extending and strengthening that work.

In addition, those students who have few or no learning errors to correct should receive enrichment activities to help broaden and expand their learning. Materials designed for gifted and talented students provide an excellent resource for such activities. Faculty meetings devoted to examining classroom assessment results and developing alternative strategies can be highly effective.

District-level personnel and collaborative partnerships with local colleges and universities offer wonderful resources for ideas and practical advice. Because corrective work is initially best done during class and under the teacher's direction, early instructional units will typically involve an extra class period or two. Teachers who ask students to complete corrective work independently, outside of class, generally find that those students who most need to spend time on corrective work are the least likely to Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum so.

By pacing their instructional units more flexibly, most teachers find that they need not sacrifice curriculum coverage to offer students the benefits of corrective instruction.

Instead, assessments must be part of an ongoing effort Tobrex (Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum help students learn.



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